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Orange County Grand Jury Report "WHERE’S THE FIRE? Stop Sending Fire Trucks to Medical Calls” 

by: Joyce Mwangi
Published: May 23, 2022


ORANG COUNTY...In Orange County, nearly 80 percent of all 911 calls to fire departments are for medical services. Efficient and effective responses to 911 calls are of utmost importance to every community. Even though 911 calls are categorized by severity, responses by most Orange County fire departments do not change accordingly. Current protocol requires sending multiple vehicles to the scene which involves not only additional personnel but also expensive fire equipment. This is the case even when an ambulance or rescue squad vehicle could provide all the necessary medical supplies and personnel. Sending a 36,000 to 60,000-pound fire engine or aerial ladder truck down residential streets for strictly medical calls is not only dangerous and costly, but it also results in unnecessary wear and tear on our streets.

Our Orange County firefighters perform an exemplary job under extremely stressful circumstances. They often work compulsory overtime hours. After considering the demands placed on our firefighters and the importance of optimizing efficiency while maintaining a high level of care and response time, the Orange County Grand Jury recommends the following: Fire departments implement a universal tiered response system to dispatch ambulances or rescue squad units to most medical calls rather than deploying larger fire equipment as the standard response.

While the Orange County Grand Jury sees distinct advantages to separating EMS from Fire response, we are not currently recommending privatization of medical services. We applaud the level of care provided by all paramedics, including firefighter paramedics. The Orange County Grand Jury does recommend, however, that the emergency medical services response model should change.

This investigation also revealed a breakdown in communication and trust between Orange County Emergency Medical Service (OCEMS) and OC Fire Chiefs, which includes Fire Chiefs of the Orange County Fire Authority (OCFA) and various city fire departments. Although their mandated responsibilities are clear, there is a mutual reluctance to acknowledge their respective spheres of authority, in particular the critical role of OCEMS as an independent regulatory body.

OCFA makes an initial determination as to the nature and severity of the medical emergency. Regardless of the preliminary assessment, a full ALS response is dispatched. This means that an engine or truck company, staffed with at least two paramedic/firefighters, two EMT trained firefighters, and a transport ambulance with two EMT trained attendants is sent to the scene. While this approach means less time is spent with the caller before the dispatch for services occurs, it also results in a minimum of six people and two vehicles being dispatched for all EMS calls, even for minor medical events.

The OCFA MOU with the firefighter’s union specifies a minimum of two paramedic/firefighters on each ALS unit. OCEMS agrees that a single PAU unit staffed with a paramedic and EMT provides the service needed for most types of emergency medical calls if the requests for service are properly triaged and dispatched based on medical priority.

In a 2014 OCFA-commissioned report recommendations included the following: Formally establish “criteria based” dispatch protocols to allow a single unit response to those incidents triaged as non-life threatening. Staff the majority of fire engines with three personnel, one of whom is a paramedic; in areas considered hard to cover, or those lacking an effective response force coverage (for example areas covered by stations 40 and 53), staff fire engines with four persons, two being paramedics. Response to a life- threatening incident would be two units. For nonlife-threatening incidents, any response unit can be dispatched.

If for example, a squad and engine are both available and the same distance from the incident the squad can be dispatched preserving the engine in the event of a fire incident. Because over 75 percent of all fire dispatch calls are for medical emergencies, dispatching an ALS response with a truck or engine to every emergency medical call does not make sense and results in a consistent over-deployment of equipment and personnel.

Avoiding the dispatch of fire engines and trucks offers an additional advantage. If one (or both) of the responding firefighter/paramedics must accompany the patient in the ambulance to the hospital, then their engine typically follows the ambulance to the hospital. The fire engine and its crew must wait until the hospital staff takes charge of the patient and releases the paramedic to rejoin their unit. The time the engine or truck is out of service waiting for the firefighter paramedic to be released is referred to as “wall time.” COVID-19 has made wall time longer as many emergency rooms have not been able to deal with the high volumes of patients, resulting in much longer wait times and potential degradation of service.

Within OCFA’s jurisdiction, there are at least two geographic areas with even higher medical emergency call volumes. One such area is Laguna Woods which is served by OCFA Station 22. Laguna Woods comprises 3.1 square miles and is home to approximately 16,000 residents with a median age of over 78. Notwithstanding its size, Laguna Woods has the same number of calls as the City of Tustin, which consists of a service territory of 11.1 square miles and a population of approximately 80,000. The table below depicts the high volume of calls and the proportion of medical calls between the two areas with the overall same number of calls.

While averaging just two fire calls each month, Laguna Woods is equipped with two Type 1 Engines and one aerial truck. Given the size and weight of these large fire vehicles, there is unnecessary wear and tear on the streets of Laguna Woods when Station 22 equipment is sent out on such a high volume of simple medical calls. Replacement of one of the two Type 1 Engines assigned to Station 22 with two paramedic squad vehicles would save the expense of wear and tear, maintenance, equipment, and operating costs. It would also result in faster response times since the time it takes for fire personnel to gear up and get the larger trucks to move out is at least two minutes longer than for the smaller vehicles to roll out.

Although that approach adds a fourth paramedic unit to the service area, causing a shift in assignments, additional staffing would not be necessary. Additionally, the cost of two fully equipped paramedic squad vehicles is less than the cost of a single Type 1 Engine. The typical cost for a fully equipped Type 1 engine is between $750,000 and $1,000,000 as opposed to the typical cost for a fully equipped Paramedic Squad vehicle (based on a Ford F-350 Super Duty Diesel chassis) which is under $200,000.

Despite fire departments throughout Orange County having evolved into emergency medical departments, most have not updated their emergency response protocols accordingly, but have simply absorbed emergency medical responses into their existing fire response models...

The full report can be found on the Orange County Grand Jury’s website at


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